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Logic: A Very Short Introduction
Logic: A Very Short Introduction Sented by Sarah Gerdes

Logic is often perceived as having little to do with the rest of philosophy, and even less to do with real life. In this lively and accessible introduction, Graham Priest shows how wrong this conception is. He explores the philosophical roots of the subject, explaining how modern formal logic deals with issues ranging from the existence of God and the reality of time to paradoxes of probability and decision theory. Along the way, the basics of formal logic are explained in simple, non-technical terms, showing that logic is a powerful and exciting part of modern philosophy. In this new edition Graham Priest expands his discussion to cover the subjects of algorithms and axioms, and proofs in mathematics. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Real Property Transactions. Procedures, Transaction Costs and Models

Transactions in land and other real property differ between countries throughout Europe. The transaction procedures reflect formal rules, but they are also normalized through conventions and professional codes of conduct. This complex of technical, legal and economic issues was investigated from the point of view of transaction economics through an ESF-COST supported Action G9 Modeling Real Property Transactions. The research was performed between 2001 and 2005 by researchers mainly from university departments related to land surveying, real estate management, geo-information sciences and knowledge engineering. This book represents the final outcome of that study. A modeling approach was elaborated and tested on a number of countries (especially Sweden and Slovenia, for which the models are shown in this book in the Unified Modeling Language (UML)). The modeling approach leads to transparency and allows comparison. Nevertheless, the influence of the national and social contexts, and the different perspectives that can be taken, prevent a simple ranking of the studied procedures. For those planning or comparing transaction procedures or parts thereof, the book supplies a tested approach and methodology. But the book eventually warns of simplification in this field full of complex national institutional arrangements. IOS Press is an international science, technical and medical publisher of high-quality books for academics, scientists, and professionals in all fields. Some of the areas we publish in: -Biomedicine -Oncology -Artificial intelligence -Databases and information systems -Maritime engineering -Nanotechnology -Geoengineering -All aspects of physics -E-governance -E-commerce -The knowledge economy -Urban studies -Arms control -Understanding and responding to terrorism -Medical informatics -Computer Sciences

Prospectus for the Public Offering of Securities in Europe 2 Volume Hardback Set: Prospectus for the Public Offering of Securities in Europe: European ... Economic Area (Law Practitioner Series)

The Prospectus Directive of 4 November 2003 sets the rules on the publication of a prospectus in the event that securities are offered to the public or admitted to trading on a stock exchange in the European Union. These rules apply in all 30 member states of the European Economic Area. Since member states decide to a large extent how to implement the Directive in their law, the rules in the different member states will differ substantially. It is therefore important not only to have an understanding of the rules laid down in the Directive but also to obtain knowledge of the rules applicable in the different states. As an English book it provides an understanding for non-Europeans of the rules applicable on the publication of a prospectus. A comprehensive table of contents, text of the European Directive and a list of national implementing laws are also included.

Science, Technology and Industry Outlook: Drivers of Growth

This special edition of the Science, Technology and Industry Outlookhas further advanced on the extensive analysis undertaken by the Committees and Working Parties of the DSTI in connection with their work over the last years on the horizontal OECD project "New Determinants of Economic Growth". It synthesises, and examines in greater depth, key findings in the areas of ICT, innovation and entrepreneurship, both as rega rds new analytical findings on their relationship to economic performance and on the policy implications. A major feature of the latter is the discussion on which policy messages should be taken at national level and which require international co-operation. The effort to undertake this work was initiated by Risaburo Nezu, former Director of Science, Technology and Industry at the OECD. Thomas Andersson, Deputy Director, co-ordinated the work and erved as general editor. The individual parts were developed by Graham Vickery and Sam Paltridge (ICT), Jean Guinet and Jerry Sheehan (innovation) and Frank Lee (entrepreneurship). Peter Avery, nBenedicte Callan, Mario Cervantes, Alessandra Colecchia, John Dryden, Michael Freudenberg, Dominique Guellec, Vladimir Lopez, Daniel Malkin, Dirk Pilat, Candice Stevens and Andy Wyckoff also made valuable contributions to the report, and useful input was provided by many other colleagues in nSTI. Constructive comments which improved the document were made by the Directorate for Financial, Fiscal and Enterprise Affairs. Finally, the oustanding support, active contributions and comments made by the delegates of the STI committees, CIBE, CSTP and ICCP, and their working parties, have been invaluable to the work.

The Making of Miracles in Indian States: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, and Gujarat (Studies in Indian Economic Policies)

Growth miracles typically have been studied at the country level. The Making of Miracles in Indian States breaks from that tradition and studies three growth miracles in India at the level of the state: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, and Gujarat. These are three of the largest and most diverse states in India. Andhra Pradesh is situated in the south of India, Bihar in the east, and Gujarat in the west. Bihar is the poorest among all states in India, Gujarat the third richest among the largest eighteen states, and Andhra Pradesh in the middle. Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat have long coastal lines while Bihar is landlocked. Yet, all of these states have grown at rates exceeding 8% for an entire decade in the 21st century. Despite many differences in the initial conditions, several common threads tie the high-growth experiences of the three states. First, accelerated growth has permitted acceleration in the growth of development expenditures in all three states, which has helped improve connectivity to markets. Alongside this growth, poverty has seen accelerated decline. Second, the composition of growth matters. Growth in high-value commodities such as fruits and vegetables, commercial crops, dairy, and animal husbandry in Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat has led to accelerated reduction in rural poverty. However, the failure of labor-intensive industry has stunted the migration of workers out of agriculture into industry. Third, the quality of leadership that brings improved governance with it is central to improved outcomes in the states. Visionary leaders―-Chandrababu Naidu in Andhra Pradesh, Nitish Kumar in Bihar, and Narendra Modi in Gujarat―-played critical roles in the making of all three miracles. Fourth, the three studies also bring out the importance of pro-market reforms and the adoption of technology in development. Finally, the studies show that good economics is also good politics: voters reward the chief ministers who bring about significant improvement to the people's lives.

Confronting Capitalism: Real Solutions for a Troubled Economic System

With the fall of the Berlin Wall, one economic modelemerged triumphant. Capitalism - spanning a spectrumfrom laissez faire to authoritarian - shapes the market economies of all the wealthiest and fastest-growing nations. But trouble is cracking its shiny veneer. In the U.S., Europe, and Japan, economic growth has slowed down. Wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few; natural re sources are exploited for short-term profit; and good jobs are hard to find. With piercing clarity, Philip Kotler explains 14 major problems undermining capitalism, including persistent poverty, job creation in the face of automation, high debt burdens, the disproportionate influence of the wealthy on public policy, steep environmental costs, boom-bust economic cycles, and more. Amidst its dire assessment of what’s ailing us, Confronting Capitalism delivers a heartening message: We can turn things around. Movements toward shared prosperity and a higher purpose are reinvigorating companies large and small, while proposals abound on government policies that offer protections without stagnation. Kotler identifies the best ideas, linking private and public initiatives into a force for positive change. Combining economic history, expert insight, business lessons, and recent data, this landmark book elucidates today’s critical dilemmas and suggests solutions for returning to a healthier, more sustainable Capitalism - that works for all.

What Is Ancient Philosophy?

A magisterial mappa mundi of the terrain that Pierre Hadot has so productively worked for decades, this ambitious work revises our view of ancient philosophy-and in doing so, proposes that we change the way we see philosophy itself. Hadot takes ancient philosophy out of its customary realm of names, dates, and arid abstractions and plants it squarely in the thick of life. Through a meticulous historical reading, he shows how the various schools, trends, and ideas of ancient Greek and Roman philosophy all tended toward one goal: to provide a means for achieving happiness in this life, by transforming the individual's mode of perceiving and being in the world. Most pressing for Hadot is the question of how the ancients conceived of philosophy. He argues in great detail, systematically covering the ideas of the earliest Greek thinkers, Hellenistic philosophy, and late antiquity, that ancient philosophers were concerned not just to develop philosophical theories, but to practice philosophy as a way of life-a way of life to be suggested, illuminated, and justified by their philosophical "discourse." For the ancients, philosophical theory and the philosophical way of life were inseparably linked. What Is Ancient Philosophy? also explains why this connection broke down, most conspicuously in the case of academic, professional philosophers, especially under the influence of Christianity. Finally, Hadot turns to the question of whether and how this connection might be reestablished. Even as it brings ancient thoughts and thinkers to life, this invigorating work provides direction for those who wish to improve their lives by means of genuine philosophical thought.

De-Westernizing Communication Research: Altering Questions and Changing Frameworks

The rise of postmodern theories and pluralist thinking has paved the way for multicultural approaches to communication studies and now is the time for decentralization, de-Westernization, and differentiation. This trend is reflected in the increasing number of communication journals with a national or regional focus. Alongside this proliferation of research output from outside of the mainstream West, there is a growing discontent with communication theories being “Westerncentric”. Compared with earlier works that questioned the need to distinguish between the Western and the non-Western, and to build “Asian” communication theories, there seems to be greater assertiveness and determination in searching for and developing theoretical frameworks and paradigms that take consideration of, and therefore are more relevant to, the cultural context in which research is accomplished. This path-breaking book moves beyond critiquing “Westerncentrism” in media and communication studies by examining where Eurocentrism has come from, how is it reflected in the study of media and communication, what the barriers and solutions to de-centralizing the production of theories are, and what is called for in order to establish Asian communication theories.

Jigsaw Puzzle Politics in the Sunshine State

“The most complete and inventive examination of redistricting in the political science literature. This book shows again that the political laboratory known as the state of Florida combines politics and legislative outcomes like few other states.”—Matthew Corrigan, author of Conservative Hurricane “Political science at its best. Essential reading for anyone wishing to understand the politics of redistricting in the Sunshine State. It will be the definitive source to inform discussion on the topic.”—Jonathan Knuckey, University of Central Florida Redrawing district lines is arguably the most polarizing of political activities in the United States today. As technological developments permit more and more sophisticated statistical analyses, those in charge of the process are more tempted to gerrymander districts for their own future benefit. At the same time, as this data is made available to the public, litigation and calls for transparency intensify. As a bellwether state, Florida offers a unique and fascinating case study to assess the various effects of redistricting. The contributors to this volume examine the issue from the perspectives of both politicians and voters, exploring the process of redistricting in the wake of major reforms. They examine new and ongoing controversies by focusing on the massive 2012 boundary changes throughout the state—and the judicial review that continued to call into question their legality on the eve of the 2014 elections.

Direct Sum Decompositions of Torsion-Free Finite Rank Groups (Chapman & Hall/CRC Pure and Applied Mathematics)

With plenty of new material not found in other books, Direct Sum Decompositions of Torsion-Free Finite Rank Groups explores advanced topics in direct sum decompositions of abelian groups and their consequences. The book illustrates a new way of studying these groups while still honoring the rich history of unique direct sum decompositions of groups. Offering a unified approach to theoretic concepts, this reference covers isomorphism, endomorphism, refinement, the Baer splitting property, Gabriel filters, and endomorphism modules. It shows how to effectively study a group G by considering finitely generated projective right End(G)-modules, the left End(G)-module G, and the ring E(G) = End(G)/N(End(G)). For instance, one of the naturally occurring properties considered is when E(G) is a commutative ring. Modern algebraic number theory provides results concerning the isomorphism of locally isomorphic rtffr groups, finitely faithful S-groups that are J-groups, and each rtffr L-group that is a J-group. The book concludes with useful appendices that contain background material and numerous examples.

Education, Poverty and Gender: Schooling Muslim Girls in India

This book investigates the nature of identity formation among economically backward adolescent Muslim girls in northern India by focusing on the interstitial spaces of the ‘home’ and ‘school’. It examines issues of religion, patriarchy and education, to interrogate the relationship between pedagogy and religion in South Asia. Using a multi-disciplinary approach and multiple research methods, the volume makes significant contribution to the study of socialisation and modern education among minorities and other marginalised groups in India. It will be of interest to scholars of education, culture and gender studies, sociology, psychology, Islamic studies, and to policy-makers and non-government organisations involved in education.

The Ecology of Finnegans Wake (Florida James Joyce)

“A remarkable work in three areas: the field of ecocriticism, to which it contributes a huge amount of historical and bibliographic information; the practice of genetic criticism in Joyce studies; and the exploration of ecological interests, themes, allusions, arguments, and manifestations in Finnegans Wake.”—Margot Norris, editor of the Norton Critical Edition of Joyce's Dubliners “A terrifically useful study. Makes the text shimmer with new possibilities by alerting the reader to Joyce’s interest in hydro-engineering, green belts, meteorology, polar exploration, and much more.”—Cheryl Temple Herr, author of Critical Regionalism and Cultural Studies “Demonstrates the promise of an ‘urban ecological criticism’ that integrates the largely pastoral emphases of ecocritical inquiry into modernist studies.”—Thomas Jackson Rice, author of Cannibal Joyce In this book—one of the first ecocritical explorations of both Irish literature and modernism—Alison Lacivita defies the popular view of James Joyce as a thoroughly urban writer by bringing to light his consistent engagement with nature. Using genetic criticism to investigate Joyce’s source texts, notebooks, and proofs, Lacivita shows how Joyce developed ecological themes in Finnegans Wake over successive drafts. Making apparent a love of growing things and a lively connection with the natural world across his texts, Lacivita’s approach reveals Joyce’s keen attention to the Irish landscape, meteorology, urban planning, Dublin’s ecology, the exploitation of nature, and fertility and reproduction. Lacivita unearths a vital quality of Joyce’s work that has largely gone undetected, decisively aligning ecocriticism with both modernism and Irish studies.

Towards a Nonlinear Quantum Physics (Contemporary Chemical Physics)

The author of this book presents conceptual and experimental evidence showing that Heisenberg's uncertainty relations are not valid in all cases. Furthermore, he derives a more general set of uncertainty relations. The new relations result from the replacement of the Fourier nonlocal and nontemporal paradigm by wavelet local analysis. These results lead to a coherent and beautiful causal synthesis unifying quantum and classical physics.

Food Poisoning: Outbreaks, Bacterial Sources and Adverse Health Effects (Food and Beverage Consumption and Health)

Hygienic food and water are essential for healthy life. Outbreaks of pathogens and chemical food poisoning occur regularly in this world, which kills around 2.2 million people globally every year. Food recalls due to the presence of food-borne pathogens and toxic chemicals are a nightmare for world economical growth. Even in the 21st century, due to the biological diversity and low infection dose, it is a continual challenge to prevent infectious disease outbreaks due to harmful pathogens. To tackle these challenges, the source of food poisoning and adverse health effects are one of the fastest growing research and technology areas in the last twenty years. This book contains ten chapters covering basic science to possible device design which can have immense applications in our society.

Pseudolinear Functions and Optimization

Pseudolinear Functions and Optimization is the first book to focus exclusively on pseudolinear functions, a class of generalized convex functions. It discusses the properties, characterizations, and applications of pseudolinear functions in nonlinear optimization problems. The book describes the characterizations of solution sets of various optimization problems. It examines multiobjective pseudolinear, multiobjective fractional pseudolinear, static minmax pseudolinear, and static minmax fractional pseudolinear optimization problems and their results. The authors extend these results to locally Lipschitz functions using Clarke subdifferentials. They also present optimality and duality results for h-pseudolinear and semi-infinite pseudolinear optimization problems. The authors go on to explore the relationships between vector variational inequalities and vector optimization problems involving pseudolinear functions. They present characterizations of solution sets of pseudolinear optimization problems on Riemannian manifolds as well as results on pseudolinearity of quadratic fractional functions. The book also extends n-pseudolinear functions to pseudolinear and n-pseudolinear fuzzy mappings and characterizations of solution sets of pseudolinear fuzzy optimization problems and n-pseudolinear fuzzy optimization problems. The text concludes with some applications of pseudolinear optimization problems to hospital management and economics. This book encompasses nearly all the published literature on the subject along with new results on semi-infinite nonlinear programming problems. It will be useful to readers from mathematical programming, industrial engineering, and operations management.

Puzzles, Paradoxes, and Problem Solving: An Introduction to Mathematical Thinking

A Classroom-Tested, Alternative Approach to Teaching Math for Liberal Arts Puzzles, Paradoxes, and Problem Solving: An Introduction to Mathematical Thinking uses puzzles and paradoxes to introduce basic principles of mathematical thought. The text is designed for students in liberal arts mathematics courses. Decision-making situations that progress from recreational problems to important contemporary applications develop the critical-thinking skills of non-science and non-technical majors. The logical underpinnings of this textbook were developed and refined throughout many years of classroom feedback and in response to commentary from presentations at national conferences. The text’s five units focus on graphs, logic, probability, voting, and cryptography. The authors also cover related areas, such as operations research, game theory, number theory, combinatorics, statistics, and circuit design. The text uses a core set of common representations, strategies, and algorithms to analyze diverse games, puzzles, and applications. This unified treatment logically connects the topics with a recurring set of solution approaches. Requiring no mathematical prerequisites, this book helps students explore creative mathematical thinking and enhance their own critical-thinking skills. Students will acquire quantitative literacy and appreciation of mathematics through the text’s unified approach and wide range of interesting applications.

Insect Molecular Biology and Ecology

Insects represent the most abundant and diverse animal group on Earth. The number of described species is more than one million and up to ten million are estimated. Insects have one of the widest distributions in the world because they have adapted to extreme ranges of environments. Molecular ecology studies ecological processes based on the analysis of biomacromolecules, particularly DNA, RNA, and proteins, but also of low-molecular weight signal compounds. Molecular ecology uses the exciting opportunities offered by the tools of molecular biology. The book presents current entomological research, where molecular tools help to advance traditional ecological studies. Chapters include ones on insect–insect and insect–plant interactions, on mechanisms of environmental adaptation, or on the use of insect biotechnology in pest and vector control. The book helps to combine powerful methods in molecular biology with exciting issues in ecology to understand why insects became "masters of survival."

Life on the Edge: The Coming of Age of Quantum Biology

New York Times Bestseller and an Amazon Best Science Book of 2015, Life on the Edge alters our understanding of our world's fundamental dynamics through the use of quantum mechanics Life is the most extraordinary phenomenon in the known universe; but how did it come to be? Even in an age of cloning and artificial biology, the remarkable truth remains: nobody has ever made anything living entirely out of dead material. Life remains the only way to make life. Are we still missing a vital ingredient in its creation? Using first-hand experience at the cutting edge of science, Jim Al-Khalili and Johnjoe Macfadden reveal that missing ingredient to be quantum mechanics. Drawing on recent ground-breaking experiments around the world, each chapter in Life on the Edge illustrates one of life's puzzles: How do migrating birds know where to go? How do we really smell the scent of a rose? How do our genes copy themselves with such precision? Life on the Edge accessibly reveals how quantum mechanics can answer these probing questions of the universe. Guiding the reader through the rapidly unfolding discoveries of the last few years, Al-Khalili and McFadden describe the explosive new field of quantum biology and its potentially revolutionary applications, while offering insights into the biggest puzzle of all: what is life? As they brilliantly demonstrate in these groundbreaking pages, life exists on the quantum edge. – Winner, Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication

More Than Honey: The Survival of Bees and the Future of Our World

“If 70 percent of all cattle or 30 percent of all chickens were to die annually, states of emergency would be declared everywhere. The death of bees is at least that dramatic and with even more far-reaching consequences.” More Than Honey, the book based on the award-winning documentary of the same name, takes us on a global tour of the world of bees, introducing us along the way to “killer bees,” Frankenbees, beekeepers, and human pollinators. Markus Imhoof and Claus-Peter Lieckfeld examine both the history and current status of our relationship to and reliance on bees, and expose the human behaviors that are contributing to the decline of the bee population—a decline that could ultimately contribute directly to a world food problem. The authors intersperse information about the intricate social structure of the bee world and the problems faced by bees—ranging from the ubiquitous Varroa destructor to overuse of pesticides and an ever-shrinking natural landscape—with conversations and interviews with beekeepers and bee experts from across the world, balancing the views of those who see bees as simply a valuable source of income with the views of those who see bees as undervalued, misunderstood creatures that need our help to survive. The end result is a fascinating, accessible overview of a species that is crucial to our survival.

Environmental Hazards and Neurodevelopment: Where Ecology and Well-Being Connect

This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. The rate of identification of children with neurobiological disabilities has been on the increase in recent years. Millions of dollars in research are being spent to understand the factors influencing these increases. The articles within this compendium shed vital light on this issue, confirming that various "ordinary" chemical hazards―of the sort encountered by countless children in their everyday lives―are having serious impacts on development. This volume investigates the impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, household chemicals, lead, agricultural toxins, and flame retardants.

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