Fast pyrolysis and related catalytic pyrolysis are of increasing interest as pathways to advanced biofuels that closely mimic traditional petroleum products. Research has moved from empirical investigations to more fundamental studies of pyrolysis mechanisms. Theories on the chemical and physical pathways from plant polymers to pyrolysis products have proliferated as a result. This book brings together the latest developments in pyrolysis science and technology. It examines, reviews and challenges the unresolved and sometimes controversial questions about pyrolysis, helping advance the understanding of this important technology and stimulating discussion on the various competing theories of thermal deconstruction of plant polymers. Beginning with an introduction to the biomass-to-biofuels process via fast pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis, chapters address prominent questions such as whether free radicals or concerted reactions dominate deconstruction reactions. Finally, the book concludes with an economic analysis of fast pyrolysis versus catalytic pyrolysis. This book will be of interest to advanced students and researchers interested in the science behind renewable fuel technology, and particularly the thermochemical processing of biomass.