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Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass: Advances in Science and Technology (Green Chemistry Series)

Fast pyrolysis and related catalytic pyrolysis are of increasing interest as pathways to advanced biofuels that closely mimic traditional petroleum products. Research has moved from empirical investigations to more fundamental studies of pyrolysis mechanisms. Theories on the chemical and physical pathways from plant polymers to pyrolysis products have proliferated as a result. This book brings together the latest developments in pyrolysis science and technology. It examines, reviews and challenges the unresolved and sometimes controversial questions about pyrolysis, helping advance the understanding of this important technology and stimulating discussion on the various competing theories of thermal deconstruction of plant polymers. Beginning with an introduction to the biomass-to-biofuels process via fast pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis, chapters address prominent questions such as whether free radicals or concerted reactions dominate deconstruction reactions. Finally, the book concludes with an economic analysis of fast pyrolysis versus catalytic pyrolysis. This book will be of interest to advanced students and researchers interested in the science behind renewable fuel technology, and particularly the thermochemical processing of biomass.

Higher Mathematics for Science, Technology and Engineering

Higher Mathematics for Science, Technology and Engineering is a textbook for undergraduate and postgraduate students undertaking science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) courses. The book begins with an introduction to one variable functions, followed by chapters covering functional derivatives, partial differentiation, integrals, matrices and determinant theory, partial fractions and much more. Key features of this textbook include: -simple, easy-to-understand explanations of relevant concepts -a wide range of simple and complex examples -several figures where appropriate

Integral Methods in Science and Engineering, Volume 1: Theoretical Techniques

This contributed volume contains a collection of articles on the most recent advances in integral methods. The first of two volumes, this work focuses on the construction of theoretical integral methods. Written by internationally recognized researchers, the chapters in this book are based on talks given at the Fourteenth International Conference on Integral Methods in Science and Engineering, held July 25-29, 2016, in Padova, Italy. A broad range of topics is addressed, such as: • Integral equations • Homogenization • Duality methods • Optimal design • Conformal techniques This collection will be of interest to researchers in applied mathematics, physics, and mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as graduate students in these disciplines, and to other professionals who use integration as an essential tool in their work.

Confectionery Science and Technology

This book examines both the primary ingredients and the processing technology for making candies. In the first section, the chemistry, structure, and physical properties of the primary ingredients are described, as are the characteristics of commercial ingredients. The second section explores the processing steps for each of the major sugar confectionery groups, while the third section covers chocolate and coatings. The manner in which ingredients function together to provide the desired texture and sensory properties of the product is analyzed, and chemical reactions and physical changes that occur during processing are examined. Trouble shooting and common problems are also discussed in each section. Designed as a complete reference and guide, Confectionery Science and Technology provides personnel in industry with solutions to the problems concerning the manufacture of high-quality confectionery products.

Chemogenomics and Chemical Genetics: A User's Introduction for Biologists, Chemists and Informaticians

Biological and chemical sciences have undergone an unprecedented transformation, reflected by the huge use of parallel and automated technologies in key fields such as genome sequencing, DNA chips, nanoscale functional biology or combinatorial chemistry. It is now possible to generate and store from tens of thousands to millions of new small molecules, based on enhanced chemical synthesis strategies. Automated screening of small molecules is one of the technologies that has revolutionized biology, first developed for the pharmaceutical industry and recently introduced in academic laboratories. High-throughput and high-content screening allow the identification of bioactive compounds in collections of molecules (chemical libraries), being effective on biological targets defined at various organisational scales, from proteins to cells to complete organisms. These bioactive molecules can be therapeutic drug candidates, molecules for biotech, diagnostic or agronomic applications, or tools for basic research. Handling a large number of biological (genomic and post-genomic), chemical and experimental information, screening approaches cannot be envisaged without any electronic storage and mathematical treatment of the data. “Chemogenomics and Chemical Genetics” is an introductory manual presenting methods and concepts making up the basis for this recent discipline. This book is dedicated to biologists, chemists and computer scientist beginners. It is organized in brief, illustrated chapters with practical examples. Clear definitions of biological, chemical and IT concepts are given in a glossary section to help readers who are not familiar with one of these disciplines. "Chemogenomics and Chemical Genetics" should therefore be helpful for students (from Bachelor's degree level), technological platform engineers, and researchers in biology, chemistry, bioinformatics, cheminformatics, both in biotech and academic laboratories.

Nanotechnologies for Environmental Remediation: Applications and Implications

In this book discussing the principles of green chemistry and green engineering an international team of investigators present significant recent developments in applying nanoscience, nanoengineering, and nanotechnology to the area of environmental remediation. The opening chapters introduce candidate nanomaterials, properties, mechanisms that enable the applications, the advantages and limitations compared to existing processes and commercial research requirements. It then explores the detection and application of nanomaterials in photocatalytic processes and as adsorbents, and also covers the effect of nanoparticles in the activated sludge process. Later chapters focus on the effects of nanoparticles on crops, the risks associated with the presence of nanoparticles in the environment, and lastly the environmental effects of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on land remediation. This timely, multi-author contributed volume is aimed at students, technicians, and academics interested in the role, risks and benefits of nanotechnology in modern environmental contexts.

Organic Coatings: Science and Technology

The definitive guide to organic coatings, thoroughly revised and updated—now with coverage of a range of topics not covered in previous editions Organic Coatings: Science and Technology, Fourth Edition offers unparalleled coverageof organic coatings technology and its many applications. Written by three leading industry experts (including a new, internationally-recognized coatings scientist) it presents a systematic survey of the field, revises and updates the material from the previous edition, and features new or additional treatment of such topics as superhydrophobic, ice-phobic, antimicrobial, and self-healing coatings; sustainability, artist paints, and exterior architectural primers. making it even more relevant and useful for scientists and engineers in the field, as well as for students in coatings courses.

Plasma and Fusion Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications

In this new book, an interdisciplinary and international team of experts provides an exploration of the emerging plasma science that is poised to make the plasma technology a reality in the manufacturing sector. The research presented here will stimulate new ideas, methods, and applications in the field of plasma science and nanotechnology. Plasma technology applications are being developed that could impact the global market for power, electronics, mineral, and other fuel commodities. Currently, plasma science is described as a revolutionary discipline in terms of its possible impact on industrial applications. It offers potential solutions to many problems using emerging techniques. In this book the authors provide a broad overview of recent trends in field plasma science and nanotechnology. Divided into several parts, Plasma and Fusion Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications explores some basic plasma applications and research, space and atmospheric plasma, nuclear fusion, and laser plasma and industrial applications of plasma. A wide variety of cutting-edge topics are covered, including: • basic plasma physics • computer modeling for plasma • exotic plasma (including dusty plasma) • industrial plasma applications • laser plasma • nuclear fusion technology • plasma diagnostics • plasma processing • pulsed power • space astrophysical plasma • plasma and nanotechnology Pointing to current and possible future developments in plasma science and technology, the diverse research presented here will be valuable for researchers, scientists, industry professionals, and others involved in the revolutionary field of plasma and fusion science.

Practical Skills in Biomolecular Science, 5th ed.

If you are studying the biomolecular sciences - including biochemistry, biomedical sciences, biotechnology, genetics, microbiology and molecular biology - then this book will be an indispensable companion throughout the whole of your degree programme. It provides effective explanation and support for the development of a wide range of laboratory and data analysis skills that you will use time and again during the practical aspects of your studies. This book also gives you a solid grounding in the broader transferable skills, which are increasingly necessary to achieve a high level of academic success.

Ultrasonic Spectroscopy: Applications in Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science

Ultrasonic spectroscopy is a technique widely used in solid-state physics, materials science, and geology that utilizes acoustic waves to determine fundamental physical properties of materials, such as their elasticity and mechanical energy dissipation. This book provides complete coverage of the main issues relevant to the design, analysis, and interpretation of ultrasonic experiments. Topics including elasticity, acoustic waves in solids, ultrasonic loss, and the relation of elastic constants to thermodynamic potentials are covered in depth. Modern techniques and experimental methods including resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, digital pulse-echo, and picosecond ultrasound are also introduced and reviewed. This self-contained book includes extensive background theory and is accessible to students new to the field of ultrasonic spectroscopy, as well as to graduate students and researchers in physics, engineering, materials science, and geophysics.

Opportunities in Intense Ultrafast Lasers: Reaching for the Brightest Light (NAS Consensus Study Reports)

The laser has revolutionized many areas of science and society, providing bright and versatile light sources that transform the ways we investigate science and enables trillions of dollars of commerce. Now a second laser revolution is underway with pulsed petawatt-class lasers (1 petawatt: 1 million billion watts) that deliver nearly 100 times the total world’s power concentrated into a pulse that lasts less than one-trillionth of a second. Such light sources create unique, extreme laboratory conditions that can accelerate and collide intense beams of elementary particles, drive nuclear reactions, heat matter to conditions found in stars, or even create matter out of the empty vacuum. These powerful lasers came largely from U.S. engineering, and the science and technology opportunities they enable were discussed in several previous National Academies’ reports. Based on these advances, the principal research funding agencies in Europe and Asia began in the last decade to invest heavily in new facilities that will employ these high-intensity lasers for fundamental and applied science. No similar programs exist in the United States. Opportunities in Intense Ultrafast Lasers assesses the opportunities and recommends a path forward for possible U.S. investments in this area of science.

Technological Advancements in Plant Sciences (Plant Science Research and Practices)

Botany is a forerunning field of study that could address the foremost disputes facing humanity in the 21st century; coupled with the development of new tools and techniques, it could aid in finding solutions to diagnose these unsolved questions. The present book summarizes the recent technological advances of plant science. This is a succinct, up-to-date, and relevant compilation based on the techniques used in plant science; this book embodies the recent knowledge of advanced techniques frequently being used from last few decades. There are twelve chapters summarized systematically that demonstrate: the suitability of Laser Produced Plasma Spectroscopy; potential of NMR spectroscopy in plant metabolomics; recent developments and applications of novel analytical techniques for the analysis of plant materials; chlorophyll as a fluorescence analysis and a technique to explore the photochemistry of photosystem II; drought stress and metabolomics in plants; heat shock on Bipolaris sorokiniana in cereal crops; salt stress on crops plants and their mitigation strategies; plant cell death by rumen-induced stress on plant in ruminant herbivores; the role of diazotrophs in maintaining plant health in agricultural fields; population biology of Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA from India; and biofilms as a home for microorganisms and genetically modified organism. This book will be helpful for researchers, academicians and students working on the related fields.

Plasticity of Boronized Layers (Springer Series in Materials Science)

This book presents the physico-technical basis and current state of the technology of boronized layers. Special attention is given to the layer structure and morphology of allocated phases and distributions in a superficial zone of chemical compounds. Two- and multi-component phases of alloys and diffusion processes in a self-organizing mode are discussed. Surface hardening by boronizing increases the life time of mechanical tools. This is important for the mining industry, agriculture, textile and chemical industry. The book is important for thermochemical treatment and surface hardening of metals and alloys.

Muslim Ethics: Emerging Vistas

Recent political and social events, as well as advances in science and technology, have posed challenges to the traditional Muslim discourse on ethics. In this book, new in paperback, Amyn B. Sajoo examines these challenges and critically analyzes the implications of emerging initiatives in political pluralism and civic culture as well as moves in bio-medicine and environmental conservation. He considers how the contours of public ethics in Islam may be redefined to provide shared conceptions of the good and the practically useful in pluralist societies.

Mathematical Paradigms of Climate Science (Springer INdAM Series)

This book, featuring a truly interdisciplinary approach, provides an overview of cutting-edge mathematical theories and techniques that promise to play a central role in climate science. It brings together some of the most interesting overview lectures given by the invited speakers at an important workshop held in Rome in 2013 as a part of MPE2013 (“Mathematics of Planet Earth 2013”). The aim of the workshop was to foster the interaction between climate scientists and mathematicians active in various fields linked to climate sciences, such as dynamical systems, partial differential equations, control theory, stochastic systems, and numerical analysis. Mathematics and statistics already play a central role in this area. Likewise, computer science must have a say in the efforts to simulate the Earth’s environment on the unprecedented scale of petabytes. In the context of such complexity, new mathematical tools are needed to organize and simplify the approach. The growing importance of data assimilation techniques for climate modeling is amply illustrated in this volume, which also identifies important future challenges.

Manual of Forensic Science: An International Survey

A truly international and multi-disciplinary compendium of current best practices authored by top practitioners from around the world, the book covers current trends and technology advances in the following disciplines within forensic science: bloodstain pattern analysis, forensic photography, ballistics, latent prints, forensic genetics and DNA, questioned documents, forensic toxicology, forensic clinical medicine, forensic pathology, forensic odontology, forensic anthropology, forensic entomology, forensic biometry, forensic psychology and profiling, law comparison and ethics, and much more. The book serves as an invaluable resource and handbook for forensic professionals throughout the world.

Geospatial Data Science Techniques and Applications

Data science has recently gained much attention for a number of reasons, and among them is Big Data. Scientists (from almost all disciplines including physics, chemistry, biology, sociology, among others) and engineers (from all fields including civil, environmental, chemical, mechanical, among others) are faced with challenges posed by data volume, variety, and velocity, or Big Data. This book is designed to highlight the unique characteristics of geospatial data, demonstrate the need to different approaches and techniques for obtaining new knowledge from raw geospatial data, and present select state-of-the-art geospatial data science techniques and how they are applied to various geoscience problems.

Environmental Monitoring for Cleanrooms and Controlled Environments (Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences)

A critical technology in the science of contamination control, environmental monitoring is a technique that provides important data on the quality of a process, processing environment, and final product, which can aid scientists in identifying and eliminating potential sources of contamination in cleanrooms and controlled environments. In response to the scattered industry and ISO standards and technical reports on the subject, this title provides comprehensive information about environmental monitoring, including monitoring of viable and non-viable air, surfaces, water, alert and action levels, trending, procedures for responding to excursions, certification/requalification, and the application of new ISO standards. Because the interpretation of results is vital in controlling contamination, several chapters discuss the presentation of data, trending, and investigations, and how they are valuable in reducing risk to the product, process, and patient.

Cybercrime in Progress: Theory and prevention of technology-enabled offenses (Crime Science Series)

The emergence of the World Wide Web, smartphones, and computers has transformed the world and enabled individuals to engage in crimes in a multitude of new ways. Criminological scholarship on these issues has increased dramatically over the last decade, as have studies on ways to prevent and police these offenses. This book is one of the first texts to provide a comprehensive review of research regarding cybercrime, policing and enforcing these offenses, and the prevention of various offenses as global change and technology adoption increases the risk of victimization around the world. Drawing on a wide range of literature, Holt and Bossler offer an extensive synthesis of numerous contemporary topics such as theories used to account for cybercrime, policing in domestic and transnational contexts, cybercrime victimization and issues in cybercrime prevention. The findings provide a roadmap for future research in cybercrime, policing, and technology, and discuss key controversies in the existing research literature in a way that is otherwise absent from textbooks and general cybercrime readers. This book is an invaluable resource for academics, practitioners, and students interested in understanding the state of the art in social science research. It will be of particular interest to scholars and students interested in cybercrime, cyber-deviance, victimization, policing, criminological theory, and technology in general.

Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Volume 1: Mathematical and Analytical Techniques

This new book brings together innovative research, new concepts, and novel developments in the application of informatics tools for applied chemistry and computer science. It presents a modern approach to modeling and calculation and also looks at experimental design in applied chemistry and chemical engineering. The volume discusses the developments of advanced chemical products and respective tools to characterize and predict the chemical material properties and behavior. Providing numerous comparisons of different methods with one another and with different experiments, not only does this book summarize the classical theories, but it also exhibits their engineering applications in response to the current key issues. Recent trends in several areas of chemistry and chemical engineering science, which have important application to practice, are discussed. Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering: Volume 1: Mathematical and Analytical Techniques provides valuable information for chemical engineers and researchers as well as for graduate students. It demonstrates the progress and promise for developing chemical materials that seem capable of moving this field from laboratory-scale prototypes to actual industrial applications. Volume 2 will focus principles and methodologies in applied chemistry and chemical engineering.

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