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Science Fiction, Ethics and the Human Condition

This book explores what science fiction can tell us about the human condition in a technological world, with the ethical dilemmas and consequences that this entails. This book is the result of the joint efforts of scholars and scientists from various disciplines. This interdisciplinary approach sets an example for those who, like us, have been busy assessing the ways in which fictional attempts to fathom the possibilities of science and technology speak to central concerns about what it means to be human in a contemporary world of technology and which ethical dilemmas it brings along. One of the aims of this book is to demonstrate what can be achieved in approaching science fiction as a kind of imaginary laboratory for experimentation, where visions of human (or even post-human) life under various scientific, technological or natural conditions that differ from our own situation can be thought through and commented upon. Although a scholarly work, this book is also designed to be accessible to a general audience that has an interest in science fiction, as well as to a broader academic audience interested in ethical questions.

Current Perspectives in High Energy Physics: Lectures from SERC Schools (Texts and Readings in Physical Sciences)

Current research in High Energy Physics focuses on a number of enigmatic issues that go beyond the very successful Standard Model of particle physics. Among these are the problem of neutrino mass, the (as yet) unobserved Higgs particle, the quark-gluon plasma, quantum aspects of gravity, and the so--called hierarchy problem. Satisfactory resolution of these important questions will take much research effort in both theory and experiment. The Science & Engineering Research Council, Department of Science & Technology has sponsored a series of SERC Schools in Theoretical High Energy Physics over the past several years, to provide instruction and training to graduate students working for research degrees. This book is an outcome of the schools held at the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata in 2000, and at the Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad in 2001. Based on lectures by active researchers in the field---Rajiv Gavai, Debashis Ghoshal, Dileep Jatkar, Anjan Joshipura, Biswarup Mukhopadhyaya, Sreerup Raychaudhuri, Saurabh Rindani, Ashoke Sen and Sandip Trivedi---the nine chapters comprising the book deal with a number of topics that range from the fundamentals of the field, to problems and questions that are at the very forefront of current research. This volume will thus be useful to the advanced graduate student who has familiarity with quantum field theory, the Standard Model, and the general theory of relativity, and will also provide a useful reference for working scientists.

A Quest Towards a Mathematical Theory of Living Systems (Modeling and Simulation in Science, Engineering and Technology)

This monograph aims to lay the groundwork for the design of a unified mathematical approach to the modeling and analysis of large, complex systems composed of interacting living things. Drawing on twenty years of research in various scientific fields, it explores how mathematical kinetic theory and evolutionary game theory can be used to understand the complex interplay between mathematical sciences and the dynamics of living systems. The authors hope this will contribute to the development of new tools and strategies, if not a new mathematical theory. The first chapter discusses the main features of living systems and outlines a strategy for their modeling. The following chapters then explore some of the methods needed to potentially achieve this in practice. Chapter Two provides a brief introduction to the mathematical kinetic theory of classical particles, with special emphasis on the Boltzmann equation; the Enskog equation, mean field models, and Monte Carlo methods are also briefly covered. Chapter Three uses concepts from evolutionary game theory to derive mathematical structures that are able to capture the complexity features of interactions within living systems. The book then shifts to exploring the relevant applications of these methods that can potentially be used to derive specific, usable models. The modeling of social systems in various contexts is the subject of Chapter Five, and an overview of modeling crowd dynamics is given in Chapter Six, demonstrating how this approach can be used to model the dynamics of multicellular systems. The final chapter considers some additional applications before presenting an overview of open problems. The authors then offer their own speculations on the conceptual paths that may lead to a mathematical theory of living systems hoping to motivate future research activity in the field.

The Science and Function of Nanomaterials: From Synthesis to Application (ACS Symposium Series)

Nanoscience and nanotechnology have functioned as effective "buzzwords" for at least a decade due to the unique properties that materials possess on the nanometer scale. The interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology is so great and so widespread that these topics are even being introduced at the K-12 level in some school districts. Nanoscience and nanotechnology have already improved many applications and have the potential to continue to do so, making it important for all types of scientists to stay up-to-date on research related to nanomaterials. In the first section of this book, a variety of synthetic methods used to make or functionalize nanomaterials are presented with work related to mesoporous materials, semiconductor nanowires, graphene, and carbon nanotubes included. The second section of the book presents accounts of using nanotechnology and nanoscience in a variety of ways. Overall, this book presents a snapshot of research covering synthetic studies of nanomaterials to applications of nanomaterials.

Safe at Home with Assistive Technology (Springerbriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology)

This book describes how assistive technology can help handicapped, elderly and acutely sick people to manage their daily lives better and stay safe in the home. It discusses how safety is understood from an ethical, technical and social perspective, and offers examples of the problems that users, their helpers and professional carers have with assistive technology in everyday situations. The book provides insights from user-centred research and uses photographs to illustrate the main topic: how users and technology can work together to ensure safety. User-focused and combining experience with research, the book will interest users of these kinds of technology, health professionals who might introduce and/or prescribe them, engineers who develop and sell assistive technological gadgets, and architects who build safe homes – as well as researchers and students who work in these fields. It provides an overview of the existing technology, examines ways to test its effectiveness from the point of view of users, health professionals and researchers from different fields (architecture, education, engineering, facility management, medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, rehabilitative medicine, physiotherapy, social science and speech therapy), and lists useful addresses, websites and literature

Institutionalizing Assisted Reproductive Technologies: The Role of Science, Professionalism, and Regulatory Control (Routledge Studies in the Sociology of Health and Illness)

Reproductive medicine has been very successful at developing new therapies in recent years and people having difficulties conceiving have more options available to them than ever before. These developments have led to a new institutional landscape emerging and this innovative volume explores how health and social structures are being developed and reconfigured to take into account the increased use of assisted reproductive technologies, such as IVF treatments. Using Sweden as a central case study, it explores how the process of institutionalizing new assisted reproductive technologies includes regulatory agencies, ethical committees, political bodies and discourses, scientific communities, patient and activists groups, and entrepreneurial activities in the existing clinics and new entrants to the industry. It draws on new theoretical developments in institutional theory and outlines how health innovations are always embedded in social relations including ethical, political, and financial concerns. This book will be of interest to advanced students and academics in health management, science and technology studies, the sociology of health and illness and organisational theory.

Towards a Theory of Spacetime Theories (Einstein Studies)

This contributed volume is the result of a July 2010 workshop at the University of Wuppertal Interdisciplinary Centre for Science and Technology Studies which brought together world-wide experts from physics, philosophy and history, in order to address a set of questions first posed in the 1950s: How do we compare spacetime theories? How do we judge, objectively, which is the “best” theory? Is there even a unique answer to this question? The goal of the workshop, and of this book, is to contribute to the development of a meta-theory of spacetime theories. Such a meta-theory would reveal insights about specific spacetime theories by distilling their essential similarities and differences, deliver a framework for a class of theories that could be helpful as a blueprint to build other meta-theories, and provide a higher level viewpoint for judging which theory most accurately describes nature. But rather than drawing a map in broad strokes, the focus is on particularly rich regions in the “space of spacetime theories.” This work will be of interest to physicists, as well as philosophers and historians of science working with or interested in General Relativity and/or Space, Time and Gravitation more generally.

Rising Time Schemes in Babylonian Astronomy (SpringerBriefs in History of Science and Technology)

This revealing work examines an approach from ancient astronomy to what was then a particularly important question, namely that of understanding the relationship between the position in the ecliptic and the time it takes for a fixed-length of the ecliptic beginning at that point to rise above the eastern horizon. Schemes known as “rising time schemes” were used to give lengths of the celestial equator corresponding to each of the twelve zodiacal signs which make up the ecliptic. This book investigates the earliest known examples of these schemes which come from Babylonia and date to the mid to late first millennium BC. Making an important contribution to our knowledge of astronomy in the ancient world, this volume includes editions and translations of all of the known Babylonian rising time texts, including several texts that are identified for the first time. Through a close examination of the preserved texts it has been possible to reconstruct the complete Babylonian rising time scheme. This reconstruction is unprecedented in its completeness, and it is also now possible to situate the scheme within a genre of Babylonian astronomy known as schematic astronomy which presents theoretical descriptions of the astronomical phenomena. The unique discoveries and fresh explorations in this book will be of interest to historians of ancient astronomy, scholars of Babylonian history and those investigating the origins of scientific thought.

Optical, Infrared and Radio Astronomy: From Techniques to Observation (UNITEXT for Physics)

This textbook presents the established sciences of optical, infrared, and radio astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the science targets and the constraints that they place on instrumentation in the different domains. It aims to bridge the gap between specialized books and practical texts, presenting the state of the art in different techniques. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities that drive the building of instrumentation and the development of advanced techniques. The specific telescopes and detectors are then presented, together with the techniques used to measure fluxes and spectra. Finally, the instruments and their limits are discussed to assist readers in choice of setup, planning and execution of observations, and data reduction. The volume also includes worked examples and problem sets to improve student understanding; tables and figures in chapters su mmarize the state of the art of instrumentation and techniques.

Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass: Advances in Science and Technology (Green Chemistry Series)

Fast pyrolysis and related catalytic pyrolysis are of increasing interest as pathways to advanced biofuels that closely mimic traditional petroleum products. Research has moved from empirical investigations to more fundamental studies of pyrolysis mechanisms. Theories on the chemical and physical pathways from plant polymers to pyrolysis products have proliferated as a result. This book brings together the latest developments in pyrolysis science and technology. It examines, reviews and challenges the unresolved and sometimes controversial questions about pyrolysis, helping advance the understanding of this important technology and stimulating discussion on the various competing theories of thermal deconstruction of plant polymers. Beginning with an introduction to the biomass-to-biofuels process via fast pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis, chapters address prominent questions such as whether free radicals or concerted reactions dominate deconstruction reactions. Finally, the book concludes with an economic analysis of fast pyrolysis versus catalytic pyrolysis. This book will be of interest to advanced students and researchers interested in the science behind renewable fuel technology, and particularly the thermochemical processing of biomass.

Higher Mathematics for Science, Technology and Engineering

Higher Mathematics for Science, Technology and Engineering is a textbook for undergraduate and postgraduate students undertaking science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) courses. The book begins with an introduction to one variable functions, followed by chapters covering functional derivatives, partial differentiation, integrals, matrices and determinant theory, partial fractions and much more. Key features of this textbook include: -simple, easy-to-understand explanations of relevant concepts -a wide range of simple and complex examples -several figures where appropriate

Integral Methods in Science and Engineering, Volume 1: Theoretical Techniques

This contributed volume contains a collection of articles on the most recent advances in integral methods. The first of two volumes, this work focuses on the construction of theoretical integral methods. Written by internationally recognized researchers, the chapters in this book are based on talks given at the Fourteenth International Conference on Integral Methods in Science and Engineering, held July 25-29, 2016, in Padova, Italy. A broad range of topics is addressed, such as: • Integral equations • Homogenization • Duality methods • Optimal design • Conformal techniques This collection will be of interest to researchers in applied mathematics, physics, and mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as graduate students in these disciplines, and to other professionals who use integration as an essential tool in their work.

Confectionery Science and Technology

This book examines both the primary ingredients and the processing technology for making candies. In the first section, the chemistry, structure, and physical properties of the primary ingredients are described, as are the characteristics of commercial ingredients. The second section explores the processing steps for each of the major sugar confectionery groups, while the third section covers chocolate and coatings. The manner in which ingredients function together to provide the desired texture and sensory properties of the product is analyzed, and chemical reactions and physical changes that occur during processing are examined. Trouble shooting and common problems are also discussed in each section. Designed as a complete reference and guide, Confectionery Science and Technology provides personnel in industry with solutions to the problems concerning the manufacture of high-quality confectionery products.

Chemogenomics and Chemical Genetics: A User's Introduction for Biologists, Chemists and Informaticians

Biological and chemical sciences have undergone an unprecedented transformation, reflected by the huge use of parallel and automated technologies in key fields such as genome sequencing, DNA chips, nanoscale functional biology or combinatorial chemistry. It is now possible to generate and store from tens of thousands to millions of new small molecules, based on enhanced chemical synthesis strategies. Automated screening of small molecules is one of the technologies that has revolutionized biology, first developed for the pharmaceutical industry and recently introduced in academic laboratories. High-throughput and high-content screening allow the identification of bioactive compounds in collections of molecules (chemical libraries), being effective on biological targets defined at various organisational scales, from proteins to cells to complete organisms. These bioactive molecules can be therapeutic drug candidates, molecules for biotech, diagnostic or agronomic applications, or tools for basic research. Handling a large number of biological (genomic and post-genomic), chemical and experimental information, screening approaches cannot be envisaged without any electronic storage and mathematical treatment of the data. “Chemogenomics and Chemical Genetics” is an introductory manual presenting methods and concepts making up the basis for this recent discipline. This book is dedicated to biologists, chemists and computer scientist beginners. It is organized in brief, illustrated chapters with practical examples. Clear definitions of biological, chemical and IT concepts are given in a glossary section to help readers who are not familiar with one of these disciplines. "Chemogenomics and Chemical Genetics" should therefore be helpful for students (from Bachelor's degree level), technological platform engineers, and researchers in biology, chemistry, bioinformatics, cheminformatics, both in biotech and academic laboratories.

Nanotechnologies for Environmental Remediation: Applications and Implications

In this book discussing the principles of green chemistry and green engineering an international team of investigators present significant recent developments in applying nanoscience, nanoengineering, and nanotechnology to the area of environmental remediation. The opening chapters introduce candidate nanomaterials, properties, mechanisms that enable the applications, the advantages and limitations compared to existing processes and commercial research requirements. It then explores the detection and application of nanomaterials in photocatalytic processes and as adsorbents, and also covers the effect of nanoparticles in the activated sludge process. Later chapters focus on the effects of nanoparticles on crops, the risks associated with the presence of nanoparticles in the environment, and lastly the environmental effects of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on land remediation. This timely, multi-author contributed volume is aimed at students, technicians, and academics interested in the role, risks and benefits of nanotechnology in modern environmental contexts.

Organic Coatings: Science and Technology

The definitive guide to organic coatings, thoroughly revised and updated—now with coverage of a range of topics not covered in previous editions Organic Coatings: Science and Technology, Fourth Edition offers unparalleled coverageof organic coatings technology and its many applications. Written by three leading industry experts (including a new, internationally-recognized coatings scientist) it presents a systematic survey of the field, revises and updates the material from the previous edition, and features new or additional treatment of such topics as superhydrophobic, ice-phobic, antimicrobial, and self-healing coatings; sustainability, artist paints, and exterior architectural primers. making it even more relevant and useful for scientists and engineers in the field, as well as for students in coatings courses.

Plasma and Fusion Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications

In this new book, an interdisciplinary and international team of experts provides an exploration of the emerging plasma science that is poised to make the plasma technology a reality in the manufacturing sector. The research presented here will stimulate new ideas, methods, and applications in the field of plasma science and nanotechnology. Plasma technology applications are being developed that could impact the global market for power, electronics, mineral, and other fuel commodities. Currently, plasma science is described as a revolutionary discipline in terms of its possible impact on industrial applications. It offers potential solutions to many problems using emerging techniques. In this book the authors provide a broad overview of recent trends in field plasma science and nanotechnology. Divided into several parts, Plasma and Fusion Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications explores some basic plasma applications and research, space and atmospheric plasma, nuclear fusion, and laser plasma and industrial applications of plasma. A wide variety of cutting-edge topics are covered, including: • basic plasma physics • computer modeling for plasma • exotic plasma (including dusty plasma) • industrial plasma applications • laser plasma • nuclear fusion technology • plasma diagnostics • plasma processing • pulsed power • space astrophysical plasma • plasma and nanotechnology Pointing to current and possible future developments in plasma science and technology, the diverse research presented here will be valuable for researchers, scientists, industry professionals, and others involved in the revolutionary field of plasma and fusion science.

Practical Skills in Biomolecular Science, 5th ed.

If you are studying the biomolecular sciences - including biochemistry, biomedical sciences, biotechnology, genetics, microbiology and molecular biology - then this book will be an indispensable companion throughout the whole of your degree programme. It provides effective explanation and support for the development of a wide range of laboratory and data analysis skills that you will use time and again during the practical aspects of your studies. This book also gives you a solid grounding in the broader transferable skills, which are increasingly necessary to achieve a high level of academic success.

Ultrasonic Spectroscopy: Applications in Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science

Ultrasonic spectroscopy is a technique widely used in solid-state physics, materials science, and geology that utilizes acoustic waves to determine fundamental physical properties of materials, such as their elasticity and mechanical energy dissipation. This book provides complete coverage of the main issues relevant to the design, analysis, and interpretation of ultrasonic experiments. Topics including elasticity, acoustic waves in solids, ultrasonic loss, and the relation of elastic constants to thermodynamic potentials are covered in depth. Modern techniques and experimental methods including resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, digital pulse-echo, and picosecond ultrasound are also introduced and reviewed. This self-contained book includes extensive background theory and is accessible to students new to the field of ultrasonic spectroscopy, as well as to graduate students and researchers in physics, engineering, materials science, and geophysics.

Opportunities in Intense Ultrafast Lasers: Reaching for the Brightest Light (NAS Consensus Study Reports)

The laser has revolutionized many areas of science and society, providing bright and versatile light sources that transform the ways we investigate science and enables trillions of dollars of commerce. Now a second laser revolution is underway with pulsed petawatt-class lasers (1 petawatt: 1 million billion watts) that deliver nearly 100 times the total world’s power concentrated into a pulse that lasts less than one-trillionth of a second. Such light sources create unique, extreme laboratory conditions that can accelerate and collide intense beams of elementary particles, drive nuclear reactions, heat matter to conditions found in stars, or even create matter out of the empty vacuum. These powerful lasers came largely from U.S. engineering, and the science and technology opportunities they enable were discussed in several previous National Academies’ reports. Based on these advances, the principal research funding agencies in Europe and Asia began in the last decade to invest heavily in new facilities that will employ these high-intensity lasers for fundamental and applied science. No similar programs exist in the United States. Opportunities in Intense Ultrafast Lasers assesses the opportunities and recommends a path forward for possible U.S. investments in this area of science.

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